May 2024

What is a short brief about Australia?

Australia is the world’s largest island and smallest continent. The first inhabitants of Australia were the indigenous people called “Aborigines” who migrated from Asia 30,000 years ago.

The continent of Australia was first encountered on the world map drawn by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in 150 BC. Ptolemy named this continent “Terra Australia Incognita” (The Unknown Southmass), which he believed should exist in order to balance the land mass in the northern hemisphere. With this map, some evidence has been found that the first Europeans (Portuguese) set foot on Australia, which began to be referred to as a mythological land mass in Europe, in 1536. From the beginning of the 17th century onwards, it is known that the Dutch set foot on this continent through the Dutch East India Company and in 1642, Abel Tasman, who was commissioned by the aforementioned company, mapped the coasts of South Australia and thus discovered Tasmania.

What is a short brief about Australia

However, Anglo-Saxons began to settle on this continent in 1770 when Captain James Cook, an officer of the British Navy, landed from Cape York and annexed Australia to England. In 1788, 1030 convicts were sent to Australia on 11 ships sailing from England. By 1868, the total number of convicts sent to Australia reached 168,000.

While the continent was a destination for convicted convicts and other criminals unwanted in the UK, the discovery of gold mines in the 1850s and 1860s saw massive immigration from the UK, the US and China, leading to the formation of the first colonies in Australia. Later, with the arrival of immigrants from England and Ireland and the unification of the colonies established in New South Wales, Tasmania, Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria and Queensland in the 19th century, the “Commonwealth of Australia”, the Australian Federation, was established in 1901.

“White Australia” in 1901 with the establishment of the Federation The new immigration law, known as the Immigration Act, was adopted and implemented for more than 70 years. Under this law, immigration to Australia from the UK and Ireland was encouraged, while the arrival of Asian immigrants, especially from China, was prevented. With the changes in immigration policies in the 1980s, Australia has become a prosperous and multicultural country receiving immigrants from all over the world.

Australia’s Ethnicity, Religion and Denominational Structure

More than 80% of the population is of British and Irish origin. The others, in order of size, are of Italian, Greek/Greek, Chinese, Arab, former Yugoslavian, Vietnamese and Turkish origin. Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders are estimated at 2.5% of the total population. Christian 67.4 (26.4% Catholic, 2.5% Anglican and 20.5% other Christian denominations), Muslim 1.7%, Buddhist 1.9%, Atheist 15.3%, No religion 12.7%, Other 1.2%.

English is the official language. Other spoken languages include Italian, Chinese, Greek, Arabic, Turkish, Hindi, etc.

What months are summer time in Australia?

Australia has 6 months of summer from October to April and 6 months of winter from April to October. Climate in Australia
Australia experiences dry periods and humid periods throughout the year. In general, the country has a tropical climate, while the Mediterranean climate prevails in the south-west. Ocean movements also affect the country’s climate, and wind and fluctuations in the ocean can cause sudden changes in the weather. How many months of winter is Australia? Australia experiences winter between May and October. The lowest temperatures recorded in the country are seen in July.

How many seasons are there in Australia? It is winter in Australia from May to October, with July being the lowest temperature in the whole country. Temperatures vary between -5 degrees and 30 degrees depending on the region. From November to April, it is summer in Australia, with average temperatures between 15-35 degrees.

What is the Climate of Australia?

What months are summer time in Australia

In Australia, December-January-February is summer; March-April-May is fall; June-July-August is winter; and September-October-November is spring. The climate distribution is the opposite of that in the Northern Hemisphere. January is the hottest month. Since the region where Melburn and Sydney are located corresponds approximately to the latitude where Turkey is located, a similarity can be established between the climates. In this respect, Canberra has similar characteristics to Ankara’s climate. Like Ankara, the city, which is 800-850 meters above sea level, has a continental climate. There are large temperature differences between day and night. It can be said that Canberra is generally a sunny city with little rainfall. However, sudden changes in the weather are not unusual. It rarely snows in winter. Temperatures can reach 40 degrees Celsius in summer and minus 7 degrees Celsius at night in winter. The humidity is reasonable.

Geographical Location of Australia

Australia is the fifth continent of the world and a continental country located in the southern hemisphere between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. With an area of 7,682,300 square kilometers, it is approximately ten times the size of Turkey and the distance between its eastern and western ends is equal to the distance between Madrid and Moscow. 40% of the country lies between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Equator. Since it is one of the oldest continents in the world, it has a generally flat terrain, except in the southeast, which is covered with old mountains. The average altitude does not exceed 300 meters. The highest point is Mount Kosciusko, 2230 meters above sea level. The humidity is reasonable.

What is the purple flowering plant in Wisconsin?

Purple Flowering PlantsHydrangea, forget-me-not, butterfly bush, lily and ajuga are just some of them. These plants, which bloom in spring and summer, fascinate everyone with their purple color. Purple Flowering Plants, Hydrangea, forget-me-not, butterfly bush, lily and ajuga are just some of them. These plants, which bloom in spring and summer, fascinate everyone with their purple colors.

Are there purple flowers? Purple Lilac: One of the most popular types of flowers. Care should be taken to protect them from the heat in summer. Purple Petunia: These are grown extensively on balconies and windowsills. They are among the perennial plant species. What is the name of a purple flower? Some of the purple flowers are lavender, lilac, purple hyacinth, purple rose, purple violet and marigold. Purple flowers are easy-care flowers that almost everyone loves and can be easily cared for at home, on the balcony and in the garden.

One of the commonly seen purple flowering plants in Wisconsin is the Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea). It is a native perennial wildflower that is known for its distinctive purple petals and raised central cone. The Purple Coneflower is a hardy plant that blooms from mid-summer through fall, attracting bees, butterflies, and other pollinators to its nectar-rich flowers. It is often found in prairies, meadows, and open areas throughout Wisconsin.

Wisconsin’s purple flowers

Purple flowers get their color from pigments called anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments that belong to a group of compounds called flavonoids. They are responsible for the wide range of purple, blue, and red hues seen in many flowers, fruits, and vegetables. Anthocyanins are produced within the cells of the flower petals. They are synthesized through a complex biochemical pathway involving enzymes and chemical reactions. The exact composition and concentration of anthocyanins determine the specific shade of purple in a flower.

What is the purple flowering plant in Wisconsin

The color of anthocyanins in flowers is influenced by several factors, including pH levels, light conditions, and the presence of other pigments. Changes in pH can affect the stability and hue of anthocyanins, causing flowers to appear more blue or more red in different environments.

Flower coloration is also influenced by other pigments, such as carotenoids and flavones, which can interact with anthocyanins and modify the final color. This interaction between different pigments contributes to the wide range of purple shades observed in flowers. It’s worth noting that while anthocyanins are primarily responsible for purple flower coloration, other factors such as structural coloration (light reflection and refraction) and the presence of other pigments like betalains can also contribute to the overall color appearance of flowers.

  1. Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea):
  2. Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea): Native to much of North America, including the United States, the Purple Coneflower is a popular perennial with vibrant purple petals and a raised central cone. It attracts pollinators and adds a touch of color to gardens and natural landscapes.
  3. Iris (Iris spp.): Irises are a diverse group of flowers, and many species and cultivars feature beautiful purple blooms. From the bearded irises (Iris germanica) to the Siberian irises (Iris sibirica) and Louisiana irises (Iris fulva), there are various purple-flowered irises to choose from.
  4. Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorus): The Balloon Flower is a charming perennial with balloon-like buds that burst open to reveal beautiful star-shaped flowers in shades of purple, blue, or white. It is found in several regions of North America.
  5. Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa): Also known as Bee Balm, Wild Bergamot is a native perennial that features clusters of lavender to purple flowers. It is a favorite among pollinators and can be found in meadows and prairies across America.
  6. Purple Verbena (Verbena spp.): Several species of Verbena produce purple flowers, including the Tall Verbena (Verbena bonariensis) and the Homestead Purple Verbena (Verbena canadensis). These perennials are known for their long-lasting blooms and are attractive to butterflies.
  7. Spiderwort (Tradescantia spp.): Spiderwort is a group of wildflowers native to North America, and some species, like the Ohio Spiderwort (Tradescantia ohiensis), display deep purple flowers. They thrive in various conditions and add a pop of color to gardens and natural areas.
  8. Purple Phlox (Phlox spp.): Phlox is a diverse genus with many species that produce purple flowers, such as the Garden Phlox (Phlox paniculata) and the Creeping Phlox (Phlox subulata). These perennials are prized for their vibrant blooms and pleasant fragrance.

These are just a few examples of purple flowers that grow in America. The continent’s diverse climates and ecosystems offer a wide range of flora with stunning purple hues.

What is the Difference Between Red and Green Apples?

Green apples and red apples grow on apple trees, which are deciduous trees that grow in temperate climates. Both are usually seeded and have two distinct flavors, sweet or sour. The popularity of apples around the world has naturally led to a curiosity about what is the difference between a green apple and a red apple, and which color apple is more beneficial.

What is the Difference Between Green Apples and Red Apples? There are no major differences between green and red apples. Of the two types of apples with two different skin colors, the green ones have a slightly more sour and granular taste, while the type with red skin has a sweeter and juicier taste.

The main reasons for the color difference between two apple peels are the pigments they contain. The anthocyanin pigments in red apples give them their red color, while the pigment called chlorophyll in green apples gives them a green appearance. Which pigment an apple carries and what color it is usually depends on the climate and region where it grows. There is no deep difference in structure between them.

What is the Difference Between Red and Green Apples

How long these pigments, which give the color difference, stay in the sun directly affects the vibrancy of the apple peel. Apples that have been exposed to a lot of sun will have a bright skin, while apples with less sun contact will have a relatively pale skin.


Which colored apple is healthier? Although there is not a big difference between green apples and red apples, there is a certain difference in taste. One is sour and the other sweet. There are small differences in terms of the benefits of both apples. Green apples are a good source of vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin K. They also contain more iron, potassium and protein than red apples.

Some research suggests that green apples may be better for people trying to lose weight. Green apples are generally recommended for diabetics. Red apples contain more antioxidants and are more flavorful.

Which Apple is Healthier

Apples are a rich source of vitamins, polyphenols and antioxidants. They are also unique fruits in balancing blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol. It is known that red apples are generally preferred because they are sweeter. However, research shows that green apples are a little healthier than red apples. Green apples, which contain high levels of fiber, are more successful in balancing blood sugar. It also has lower sugar and carbohydrate levels than red apples. In this case, green apples are recommended as a fruit that should be added to the healthy diet list.

Green apples have slightly more soluble fiber than red apples. Green apples are the most beneficial fruit for diabetics as the key to preventing blood sugar spikes, which can be fatal. In addition, green apples control the rate at which sugar is released in the bloodstream to manage insulin resistance.

When Should You Prune Roses? Rose Pruning

How do you prune roses from the bottom

Rose pruning should be done regularly from the first year after planting. By learning how to prune roses, you can ensure that they bloom more and maintain their vitality for a long time. When to prune roses? It is important to plan the timing well and prune roses just before they wake up from hibernation. It is not advisable to prune in November when the weather gets colder. Warmer months such as April should be preferred. Regularly pruned roses create a beautiful and healthy appearance.

When to Prune Roses? The best pruning time for roses in your garden is between late fall and the end of winter, when roses are left to rest. During this period, the leaves of the rose plant decrease, its flowering stops and it is suitable for pruning.

The most suitable pruning time for the roses you care for in your garden or at home will be the end of autumn and the end of winter, when the roses are left to rest. During these periods, the leaves on the rose plants decrease and the flowering begins to stop. Thus, suitable conditions for pruning are created. The pruning technique in roses is done so that weak plants can develop quickly and vigorously. After hard pruning, the excess branches are removed and the plants are pruned so that three to four shoots of 5 to 25 centimeters remain. How to prune roses? This is the most ideal pruning method for pruning roses in the garden. It is done by leaving an average of 4 to 10 shoots on the plant.

Pruning time for roses: Light pruning technique can be applied to roses with short stems. This method is recommended for roses in their first year after planting. Year-old shoots are cut by a third of their length.

If you are wondering “When to prune roses?”, the clearest answer is that rose pruning should be done at the end of winter and the beginning of spring. For roses that bloom continuously, you can prune between January and March. For climbing roses that bloom once a year, pruning can be done in spring and summer after the flowers have passed. If pruning is done before the flowers bloom in spring, ivy roses will not bloom that year. Roses are pruned every year. If a good rose is pruned and taken care of, roses will be very healthy and vibrant. Pruning is very useful for rose varieties. It protects roses from diseases and makes beautiful flowers bloom. What month are roses pruned, and how are they pruned? In what month is rose pruning done? Roses are plants that require special attention.

Trimming twigs is a crucial element of this plant’s maintenance. The branches do not grow and shorten with time, and they appear dry. Starting the first year following planting, they should be pruned. Using a sharp instrument to cut the graft point. Generally, only above the graft point allows both roses to stay youthful and produce productive and high quality blossoms throughout pruning. What month Should I cut back my rose bushes? Should I Cut Back My Roses Every Year?

It’s time to prune the roses

The rose will grow taller and the bush will lose its shape if it is not pruned. The number of blossoms increased excessively at first, but eventually vanished totally. It sprouted little, low-quality blooms. Pruning must be done in a specific order and without interruption in order to achieve this. Shape pruning is only possible when the roses do not require renewal and the results are satisfactory. The roses should be pruned in a V shape to give them a decent form.

Can rose pruning be done in the winter?

Late winter or early spring is the best time to prune roses. Roses that have previously flowered should be pruned after the blossoms have faded. After blooming, roses should always be removed by cutting off any unproductive or undersized branches. They are also pruned in a few situations to keep the plant upright and without growing to the right and left.

What month is the rose pruned, rose pruning pictures, rose pruning video

How do you prune roses from the bottom?

This is a challenging method of pruning. The plant’s branches are trimmed to a maximum of 25-30 cm above the ground. This form of pruning guarantees that the flower branches are longer and stronger, and that the young shoots are sturdy and lasting. The bottom pruning technique is used to prune the majority of the weak and low-yielding roses. For dwarf roses and edible rose kinds that bloom at the tip of the shoot from the root, this should be done every year.

What is the best way to prune roses?

One or two annual shoots should be trimmed at 2-4 locations at the tips of old branches on plants. As the buds develop, care must be taken to ensure that the directions of these falling branches and shoots do not intersect. At the time of pruning, the inside of the cut shoot should be white in color. It’s advisable to cut it and make it white if it’s brown or black. However, it is not a good pruning method for huge roses that only bloom once a year. This pruning should only be done if it is absolutely necessary. This pruning strategy should not be used every year for some rose species. Your roses will produce few but showy blossoms if you prune them hard.

Roses with a medium pruning system

On the rose plant, 5-10 shoots remain. 50-60 cm is the height of the plant. The best pruning approach for garden roses is moderate pruning. When compared to severe pruning approaches, it produces a greater amount of blossoms. The resulting interest, however, is smaller. For climbing ivy and rose species that bloom only once a year, this is the best trimming strategy. Roses that bloom once a year must be pruned after blooming. Because the branches that grow and develop until the fall will bloom in the spring the following year. If you prune them, they will either not bloom enough in the spring or will have a year with no flowers.

How do you prune an overgrown rose bush in the summer?

Rose Pruning Varieties (Mixed Pruning)

It’s designed for roses with more branches than roots. Some branches on the plant are cut, while others are left longer than the bottom when pruning is done. Branches that have lost their vitality and are unable to gain efficiency are pruned at the base. Rose seedlings’ branches are trimmed short based on their length, taking into account factors like strength, thickness, length, age, and yield. Roses should be pruned in the following manner, regardless of their type.

Pruning Roses by Year

More than two times in the first year, three to four times in the second year, five to six times in the third year, and more than two, three times in the fourth year. The shape of the rose is retained and its lifespan is increased when pruning is done this manner. Seedlings should be irrigated soon after pruning, and diluted nutrients should be applied with watering. Pruning in the fall and spring on chilly mornings or evenings is better for plant health. Aesthetic Rose Trimming; This kind of pruning isn’t appropriate for all types of roses. With special attention and pruning, a variety of rose species can be given a pleasant and aesthetic appearance in a variety of methods.

Rose and Flower Pruning Techniques for the Summer

Garden roses should not have wilting blossoms after this pruning approach. This type of pruning not only prevents the development and creation of new flowers, but it also weakens the vigor of the plant. As a result, it’s ideal to keep it trimmed by leaving two five-leaf leaves at the bottom of flower stalks that have opened but are beginning to wither. This pruning is a year-round pruning. Rose branches can go blind and stop blooming in some instances. The pace of new shoots rises if these brilliant branches are being cut. When should roses be cut back for winter?, Can you prune roses in autumn?, Should you prune roses in November?, when is it too late to prune roses, pruning roses in summer, pruning roses in autumn, When should you not cut roses?, When should roses be cut back and how much?, When should roses be cut back for winter?, Why are my roses growing so tall?, How do you prune roses for the winter?, Rose pruning pictures, Why is rose pruned, Rose pruning seasons, how do you prune roses, pruning in rose varieties

When the leaves and roses have dried out, it’s time to prune the flowers. Trim dried roses, as well as leaves and branches. Because some plants might be poisonous when pruned at home, disinfecting pruning equipment after cutting the same flower, such as roses, is recommended.

What is the meaning of the Kokina flower?

Kokina, which is prepared by tying the red plant called “silcan” between green leaves with threads, is generally used in door decorations, shop windows and tables. There is a lot of interest in the kokina plant, also known as the “New Year’s flower”, which is one of the symbols of the New Year and is only available for sale in December.

We often start to see Kokina around December. Kokina is not actually a natural plant. It is a combination of two plants, Ruscus aculeatus and Smilax excelsa. Ruscus aculeatus belongs to a subfamily of the plant family Asparagaceae.

What is the meaning of the Kokina flower

WHAT DOES KOKINA MEAN? The word “kokina” is of Greek origin and means “red”. This plant is native to Southern Europe, but also grows around the Mediterranean and Iran. Is the kokina plant lucky? In addition to bringing luck, according to a rumor; it is believed that if the leaves and red fruits of the kokina flower do not rot or fade for 1 year, the owner of the flower will own a house. It is also believed that the kokina flower energizes houses with its appearance. Thanks to the Kokina flower, the houses become colorful and more cheerful. Ruscus aculeatus belongs to a subfamily of the plant family Asparagaceae. Its Turkish names are rabbit’s tit and ├Âlmezdiken). R. aculeatus is a densely branched evergreen plant that does not grow very tall. It grows up to approximately 70-80 cm. It is a very hardy plant. The flowering period of Ruscus can last from the beginning of the year until April or May. The female flowers then produce the small red fruits that are unique to R. aculeatus. Is the Kokina plant poisonous?
The red clustered fruits of Smilax are tied with red threads to the ends of R. aculeatus branches. The result is a beautiful flower, named after the Greek word Kokina, which means “red”. They are usually prepared in bouquets of 6 branches. The fruits of the Kokina flower can be poisonous to pets, so if you have pets in your home, you should be careful not to let them eat these red berries.

What is the kokina flower?

The red berries of the coquina, known as the Christmas flower, are picked by hand from the thorny ivy-shaped tree. These red berries are called silcan. The collected red berries are combined into a ball and tied to the top of the thorny green branches with red threads.

Caring for the Kokina plant: Because Kokina is a living plant, it needs care. The Kokina flower likes neither too hot nor too cold. If you want this flower to have a long life, you should keep it in a warm environment. It will be enough to water the Kokina flower 2 times a week. You can give the water from the root. be careful, this flower does not like too much water.

kokina flower


According to some legends, the kokina flower bears fruit in the middle of winter, which is considered a miracle and has led to it being considered a sacred flower. Today, there are still some legends or common beliefs about the kokina flower. If the red berries and green leaves of the kokina flower, which symbolize fertility, are bought in the new year and remain intact until the following year, it means that the owner of the flower will have a new home.