Generally 80-85% water in fruit, 0.2-1.0% nitrogenous substances, 0.1-0.3 fat, 3-18% carbohydrates and 0.3-0.8 mineral substances. CARBOHYDRATES Most of the soluble solids of the fruit sugars. Sugars are generally found in fruits is composed entirely of glucose (grape sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar). Glucose to fructose, which is characteristic for fruit species also varies according to the type and type of fruit. Apples and pears are high in fructose. In addition to this products contain some sucrose and mannose, a hexose is also available.
50-69% of total sugar in apples (average 60 %) and 64-79 % (average 60 %) for pears 70) level of fructose. Glucose content in stone fruits is generally less than fructose. Cherry and sour cherry practice they contain only glucose and fructose. In contrast sucrose content in peach (57-59%), apricot (66-87%) and plums (44-71%).
In many of the berries and in citrus fruits, glucose is converted to fructose ratio is about 1:1, and most of the time fructose is more abundant. Mandarin, pineapple and banana have more sucrose is also high. Blackberries glucose-to-fructose ratio 0.71.
Polysaccharides are composed of a large number of monosaccharides and they are not sweet. Polysaccharides in fruit are generally starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin.
Other important nutrients found in fruit The polysaccharides are cellulose and hemicellulose. In cellulose is made up of a large number of glucoses, such as starch, but this the structure is different in the union. Hemicellulose, like cellulose, is a plant tissue in the lignified part. These are subject to fragmentation are resistant to cold, are support substances in plants and are insoluble in hot water and can be used by humans they are not digested. Therefore, it is important to keep the intestines They fulfill an important function by regulating.
The most important polysaccharide pectin. Its amount is 0.5-1.0 of pectin. Pectin is found in the cell walls of plants. and are found in the tissue that binds the cells together is the basic compound that gives support. Pectin is actually a compound with similar properties and pectic substances (pectic acid, pectate, pectin, called pectinate, propectin, pectin derivatives) in a group of substances. In pectin, galacturonic acid units are connected by a straight chain in the form of galacturonic acid. In this structure galacturonic acid part of the molecules are esterified with methanol.
Fruits contain sugars as well as some sugar alcohols contains. The best known in this sense is Sorbit, a hard and in almost all stone fruits is found. The amount in apple juice is 300-800 mg/l is known. Sorbit in citrus fruits, bananas and pineapples not found, but very small amounts in berries can be found. Therefore, the purity of fruit products sorbit amount can be utilized in sorbit analysis.
Organic Acids in Fruits
Depending on the variety of fruits and vegetables, different types and amounts (0.1-35 g/kg) of organic acids. High sugar:acid ratio in fruits is sweet, low sugar:acid ratio is sweet. is an indication that the sour taste will predominate. With the help of different acids in the composition of fruits can detect whether fruit juices have been adulterated.
Fruits respire during storage, in addition to sugars as well as organic acids and can therefore utilize The amount of acid may decrease in stored fruits. The most abundant organic acids in fruits are malic and citric acid. Malic acid is mostly found in fruits such as apples, cherries and cherries. (90% of the total acid), while citric acid is found in citrus fruits and strawberries. are the dominant acids.
In pears, most of the total acid is malic acid. acid, but there is also a significant amount of citric acid. In addition, oranges have 10-25%, 20% in mandarins, 6-10% in grapefruits and lemons contain 5% malic acid. Apart from these acids, tartaric acid is found only in grapes. is a dominant acid.
Very low amounts of succinic acid, pyruvic, fumaric, glyceric, oxalic, galacturonic, quinic, gallic, caffeic acid There are also organic acids, such as organic acids. During the processing of fruits and vegetables, the types and amounts of acids changes can be seen. For example, in the processing of fruits, depending on the processing conditions Some volatile acids of microbiological origin are formed. Especially in fruit juices, the amount of these acids has a negative quality is the criterion.
Vitamins Found in Fruits
Fruits and vegetables are an important source of vitamins. In water Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one of the most is widely available. Vitamin C is found in a variety of foods, especially citrus fruits. strawberries, tropical fruits are available. Among the foods richest in vitamin C One is rose hips (2000-3000 mg/100g). Vitamin C temperature, oxygen and light easily degradable with the effect of is a vitamin with low stability. Fe and Cu in the environment and metals can also make vitamin C in the form of a fragment.
Ascorbic acid is also widely used in food technology, especially in fruit processing to prevent color browning. is used. As a matter of fact, 200-600 mg/kg ascorbic acid is added to frozen cherries. addition for 6 months and at the end of storage for 6 months, the color is not changed at all. not spoil. In the same way, fruits to be frozen in slices are not spoiled before freezing. first immersed in a solution containing 0.5-1.0% ascorbic acid It provides a very good preservation of color. In the production of apricot and peach juices and nectars, ascorbic acid is widely used. is being utilized to a great extent.
Nitrogenous Compounds in Fruits
Fruits are not foods rich in nitrogenous compounds. Fruits contain 0.2-1.0% and vegetables contain an average of 2 level of proteins. Proteins make up 35-80% of this. Hazelnuts, on the other hand, nuts such as almonds and walnuts contain around 20% protein includes. Citrus fruits and grapes are rich in proline. Fruit and vegetables often contain trace amounts of amino acids. even if it exists, it is product-specific, so it is especially important These compounds are utilized in the determination.
Enzymes in fruits
The variety of proteins contained in fruits and maturity, but it varies enzymes make up a large part. These are involved in carbohydrate metabolism (proteolytic enzymes, such as cellulases, cellulases, amylases, saccharides) or in lipid metabolism (lipases and fatty acid synthesizing enzymes) or protein metabolism (proteases and transaminases enzymes such as esterases, catalysts and enzymes such as peroxidases.
What are the elements that make up fruits? Fruit Components
Fruits are composed of various elements, including water, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and phytochemicals. The specific composition can vary among different types of fruits, but here are the primary components. What are the components of a fruit? Fruit Components:
- Fruits generally have high water content, which contributes to their juiciness and refreshing quality.
- Sugars: Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are common sugars found in fruits. These sugars provide sweetness and energy.
- Fiber: Fruits contain dietary fiber, including soluble and insoluble fibers. Fiber contributes to digestive health and can help regulate blood sugar levels.
- Vitamin C: Many fruits are rich in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), which is an antioxidant that supports the immune system and helps with the absorption of iron.
- Other Vitamins: Fruits also contain other vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin K, various B vitamins, and folate.
- Potassium: Bananas, oranges, and melons are examples of fruits high in potassium, an essential mineral for heart and muscle function.
- Magnesium: Some fruits, like avocados and bananas, contain magnesium, which is important for various physiological processes.
- Phytochemicals are natural compounds found in plants, including fruits, that have potential health benefits. These may include antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and other bioactive substances.
- Fruits are rich in antioxidants, such as flavonoids and carotenoids, which help neutralize free radicals and protect cells from oxidative damage.
- Some fruits contain organic acids that contribute to their taste. For example, citric acid in citrus fruits gives them a tangy flavor.
- While fruits are not typically high in protein, they do contain small amounts of this essential macronutrient.
- Fruits generally have a low lipid content. Avocados are an exception, as they are relatively high in healthy fats.
The specific combination and concentration of these components vary among fruits, giving each fruit its unique flavor, texture, and nutritional profile. Eating a variety of fruits as part of a balanced diet provides a range of nutrients and health benefits